HLW, SF and LILW that require storage and disposal
Low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) emits ionising radiation but not significant amounts of heat. While it therefore does not need to be cooled, it does have to be packed or placed behind other barriers to ensure that it does not spread out into the environment via water or other pathways. This is another way in which radiation can be limited or minimised. The management of low-level waste usually does not require additional barriers against radiation, although barriers are usually required for intermediate-level waste.
Spent fuel is generated in Slovenia at Krško nuclear power plant (NEK) and at the Triga research reactor at “Joseph Stefan” Institute at Brinje in Dol pri Ljubljani.
HLW and SFemit large amounts of heat in addition to strong radiation, which makes management of these types of waste a demanding process. It is not uncommon for this waste to remain radioactive for more than 10,000 years. It is cooled and then encased in a thick layer of dense material (water, metal, concrete). This holds back the strong radiation and prevents the radioactive waste from mixing with other materials in the environment. HLW mainly comprises waste generated from the recycling of SF into new nuclear fuel and waste from the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, as well as SF that is not treated but permanently disposed of. HLW is also generated by the long-term irradiation of certain materials in the core of a nuclear reactor.